Associations between cognitive impairment and patient-reported measures of physical/mental functioning in older people living with HIV.
OBJECTIVES: While cognitive impairment is frequently reported in HIV-positive individuals and has historically been associated with poorer functional outcomes, the associations between cognitive impairment and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) in contemporary cohorts are unclear. METHODS: We tested cognitive function using a computerized battery (CogState™ ) in 290 HIV-positive and 97 HIV-negative individuals aged ≥ 50 […]
BACKGROUND: Although postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is well described after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, a major concern has been that a progressive decline in cognition will ultimately lead to dementia. Since dementia interferes with the ability to carry out daily functions, the impact has far greater ramifications than cognitive decline defined purely by […]
Associations between Performance on an Abbreviated CogState Battery, Other Measures of Cognitive Function, and Biomarkers in People at Risk for Alzheimer’s Disease.
It is not known whether computerized cognitive assessments, like the CogState battery, are sensitive to preclinical cognitive changes or pathology in people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease(AD). In 469 late middle-aged participants from the Wisconsin Registry for Alzheimer’s Prevention(mean age 63.8±7 years at testing; 67% female; 39% APOE4+), we examined relationships between a CogState abbreviated […]
Neuropsychological Impairment and Its Association with Violence Risk in Japanese Forensic Psychiatric Patients: A Case-Control Study.
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the legislation directing treatment of offenders with psychiatric disorders was enacted in 2005. Neuropsychological impairment is highly related to functional outcomes in patients with psychiatric disorders, and several studies have suggested an association between neuropsychological impairment and violent behaviors. However, there have been no studies of neuropsychological impairment in forensic patients covered […]
Alzheimer’s disease cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers are not influenced by gravity drip or aspiration extraction methodology.
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, although of established utility in the diagnostic evaluation of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), are known to be sensitive to variation based on pre-analytical sample processing. We assessed whether gravity droplet collection versus syringe aspiration was another factor influencing CSF biomarker analyte concentrations and reproducibility. METHODS: Standardized lumbar puncture using small calibre […]
BACKGROUND: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) affects 16 to 21% of the elderly 3 months after anesthesia and surgery and is associated with adverse outcomes. The exact cause of POCD remains unknown. The authors hypothesized that elderly individuals with Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathology, identified by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis, would have increased the risk for POCD. […]
A randomized controlled trial of light versus deep propofol sedation for elective outpatient colonoscopy: recall, procedural conditions, and recovery.
PURPOSE: This study aimed to determine if the incidence of recall was equivalent between light and deep sedation for colonoscopy. Secondary analysis included complications, patient clinical recovery, and post-procedure cognitive impairment. METHODS: Two hundred patients undergoing elective outpatient colonoscopy were randomized to light (bispectral index [BIS] 70-80) or deep (BIS < 60) sedation with propofol […]
Amyloid-Related Memory Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer’s Disease Is Dependent on APOE ε4 and Is Detectable over 18-Months.
High levels of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain and carriage of the APOE ε4 allele have each been linked to cognitive impairment in cognitively normal (CN) older adults. However, the relationship between these two biomarkers and cognitive decline is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cerebral Aβ level, APOE […]
Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study of Encenicline, an α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Agonist, as a Treatment for Cognitive Impairment in Schizophrenia.
Encenicline is a novel, selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist in development for treating cognitive impairment in schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease. A phase 2, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-design, multinational study was conducted. Patients with schizophrenia on chronic stable atypical antipsychotics were randomized to encenicline 0.27 or 0.9 mg once daily or placebo for 12 weeks. The […]
Preexisting Cognitive Impairment Is Associated with Postoperative Cognitive Dysfunction after Hip Joint Replacement Surgery.
BACKGROUND: This study investigated the prevalence of cognitive impairment in elderly noncardiac surgery patients and any association between preoperative cognitive impairment and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Additionally, the incidence of cognitive decline at 12 months after surgery was identified. METHODS: Three hundred patients for hip joint replacement and 51 nonsurgical controls aged 60 yr or […]
Amyloid-β, Anxiety, and Cognitive Decline in Preclinical Alzheimer Disease: A Multicenter, Prospective Cohort Study
IMPORTANCE: Alzheimer disease (AD) is now known to have a long preclinical phase in which pathophysiologic processes develop many years, even decades, before the onset of clinical symptoms. Although the presence of abnormal levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) is associated with higher rates of progression to clinically classified mild cognitive impairment or dementia, little research has […]
The neuropsychological profile of symptomatic AIDS and ADC patients in the pre-HAART era: a meta-analysis.
It remains essential to document the neuropsychological profile of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex (ADC) and minor forms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated neurocognitive impairment by quantifying the magnitude of impairment across eras of treatment. Indeed, with the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), there is evidence of changes in aspects of ADC. […]
Early cognitive impairment after sedation for colonoscopy: the effect of adding midazolam and/or fentanyl to propofol.
BACKGROUND: The sedative drug combination that produces minimal cognitive impairment and optimal operating conditions during colonoscopy has not been determined. We sought to determine if the use of propofol alone results in less cognitive impairment at discharge than the use of propofol plus midazolam and/or fentanyl in patients presenting for elective outpatient colonoscopy. METHODS: Two […]
OBJECTIVES: Concussion is common in contact sports such as boxing. Diagnosis of concussion depends on symptom report or recognition of clinical features, and true incidence may be underestimated. Persistent morbidity is a possible risk of repeated or unrecognised concussion. This study aimed to evaluate pre and postbout cognitive performance in motivated amateur boxers in order […]