Two Back Test

Cognitive Domain: Working Memory

Administration Time: 4 Minutes (for healthy participants)

Outcome Measures: Accuracy of performance (arcsine transformation of the square root of the proportion of correct responses).


“Is the card the same as that shown two cards ago?”


Test Description

The Two Back test measures working memory using an n-back paradigm. The on-screen instructions ask: “Is the card the same as that shown two cards ago?”. A playing card is presented face up in the center of the screen. The participant must decide whether the card is the same as the card shown two cards previously. If the card is the same the participant should press “Yes”, and if it is not the same the participant should press “No”. The participant is encouraged to work as quickly as they can and be as accurate as possible.