Groton Maze Learning Test – Delayed Recall

The Delayed Groton Maze Learning Test uses a maze learning paradigm to measure visual memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 1 Minute

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

Groton Maze Learning Test – Delayed Recall Test Description

The 10 x 10 grid of tiles is shown again on the computer screen. The subject is asked to reproduce the pathway that he/she learned at the start of the Cogstate battery. The subject should start at the top left tile and try to remember the path to the end of the maze at the bottom right. The subject completes this delayed recall trial once.

Primary Outcome measure

Unit of measurement: Total errors

Description and interpretation of scores: Accuracy of performance; total number of errors after a delay. (Lower score = better performance)

Groton Maze Learning Test – Delayed Recall Reverse

The Reverse Groton Maze Learning Test uses a maze learning paradigm to measure spacial working memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 1 Minute

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

Groton Maze Learning Test – Delayed Recall Reverse Test Description

This test can only be administered if the Groton Maze Learning Test has been completed. Typically, the Reverse Delayed Recall maze is presented after a delay of at least 10 minutes.

The aim of the Reverse Delayed Recall maze is to test the subject’s recall of a previously learned hidden pathway more intensively by requiring the pathway to be tapped in reverse order.

The 10 x 10 grid of tiles is shown again on the screen. The subject is asked to reproduce the pathway that he/she learned at the start of the Cogstate battery, but this time to do it backward. The subject should start at the bottom right tile and try to remember the path (in reverse order) to the end of the maze at the top left. The subject completes this reverse delayed recall trial once.

Primary Outcome measure

Unit of measurement: Errors

Description and interpretation of scores: Total number of errors made in remembering the maze pathway backwards after a delay. (Lower score = better performance)

International Shopping List Test – Delayed Recall

The Delayed International Shopping List Test (ISLT) uses a word list paradigm to measure verbal memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 1 Minutes

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

International Shopping List Test – Delayed Recall Test Description

In this test the individual is not shown anything. They are asked: “Now we are going to go back to the shopping list I read to you earlier. I need you to try and remember the items on this list and tell me what they were. Are you ready to start?”

The test supervisor presses the “ENTER” key to begin and instructs the subject “Tell me as many of the items on the shopping list as you can remember.” They then note all of the items recalled by the subject by clicking/touching the corresponding button on screen with the stylus or mouse.

Primary Outcome measure

Unit of measurement: Number of correct responses

Description and interpretation of scores: Total number of correct responses made in remembering the list after a delay. (Higher score = better performance)

International Shopping List Test – Recognition

The International Shopping List Test – Recognition uses a word list learning paradigm to measure verbal learning.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 1 minute

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

International Shopping List Test – Recognition Description

In this test the individual is presented twice as many items as were in the list read to them during the ISL immediate recall test, with all of the items from the original list and an equal number of distractors randomly intermixed. The list of items is presented in two columns with each item followed by a “Yes” and “No” check box. The subject is read the full list of items and is asked to say “Yes” if they think the item was on the original list or “No” if they think the item was not on the original list. The test supervisor records the subject’s answers by selecting the appropriate check box.

Primary Outcome Measure

Unit of Measurement: Number of correct responses

Description and Interpretation of scores: Total number of correct responses made in recognizing the items from the original list. (Higher score = better performance)

Face Name Associative Memory Exam

The Face Name Associative Memory Exam uses photos of real-life faces to measure associative memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 4 Minutes

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

Face Name Associative Memory Exam Test Description

The aim of the Face Name test is to test associative memory using visual stimuli. This test presents a series of facial photos and names to the subject who is asked to remember the face-name pair.

This test consists of four sub-tests, all of which use facial photos – Name Fits (Initial Learning), Face Seen Before (Facial Recognition), 1st Letter of Name, and Face-Name Matching. In each administration of this test, there will be four young, four middle-aged, and four older faces presented. There will be either two or four diverse faces per age group. Name pairings are from a Top 20 baby names list from the decade the person/face was born.

In the Name Fits (Initial Learning) sub-test, the subject is presented with a face along with an age appropriate first name, and is asked to decide whether that first name does or does not match the face. The intent is for the subject to remember the face-name pair. In the Face Seen Before (Facial Recognition) sub-test, the subject is presented with three faces, one of which is from the Name Fits test, and two new faces that have not previously been presented. The subject is asked to indicate the face that is recognised. The 1st Letter of Name sub-test presents the subject with a face from the original Name Fits sub-test’s face-name pairs and asks the subject to choose the letter that corresponds to the first letter of the name that matches the face. In the Face-Name Matching sub-test, the subject is again presented with a face from the Name Fits sub-test’s face-name pairs and is asked to choose which of three names is the correct name that matches the face.

Primary Outcome measure

Unit of measurement: Number of correct responses

Description and interpretation of scores: The Primary Outcome is calculated separately for each sub-test. (Higher score = better performance for all sub-tests)

Behavioral Pattern Separation Object Test

The Behavioral Pattern Separation Object Test (BPSO) uses photos of objects to measure recognition memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 4 Minutes

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

Behavioral Pattern Separation Object Test Description

The aim of the Behavioral Pattern Separation Object test is to assess recognition memory performance for objects using traditional targets, unrelated foils, as well as similar distractors. This test presents a series of photos of common objects to the subject who is asked to decide whether each object is used indoors or outdoors, and to remember the object.

This test consists of two sub-tests which must be completed consecutively. In the Indoor-Outdoor sub-test, the subject is presented with a photo of an object and is asked to decide whether that object is used indoors or outdoors. The intent is for the subject to remember the object. In the Old, Similar, New sub-test, the subject is presented with a photo of an object and must decide whether they have seen that same object during the Indoor-Outdoor phase, seen a similar object during the Indoor-Outdoor phase, or have not seen that object during the Indoor-Outdoor phase.

Primary Outcome measure

Unit of measurement: BPSO Metric

Description and interpretation of scores: The BPSO Metric is the probability of a “Similar” response to a “Distractor” minus the probability of a “Similar” response to a “Foil”. (Higher score = better performance)

Continuous Paired Associate Learning Test – Delayed Recall

The Continuous Paired Associate Learning Test – Delayed Recall uses a paired associative learning paradigm to measure visual memory.

Administration Time (in healthy volunteers): 1 minute

Cognitive Domain Measured: Memory

Continuous Paired Associate Learning Test Description

The pre-test on-screen instructions ask: “In what locations did these pictures belong?”

The same pictures that were presented in the immediate recall test are presented one at a time in the center of the screen. The subject must tap on the peripheral location where each picture previously appeared in the CPAL – immediate recall test.

Primary Outcome Measure

Unit of measurement: Total Errors

Description and Interpretation of scores: Accuracy of performance; total numbers of errors after a delay. (Lower score = better performance).